Biological Effects of Traumeel and Zeel Injection Solutions
Proposed MOA of Traumeel Injection Solution
Although the exact mechanism of action is not fully understood, in-vitro studies show that Traumeel Injection Solution inhibits IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-8. Inhibiting these physiological messengers modulates the inflammatory response and thus helps relieve pain.
Figure: Traumeel Injection Solution appears to act by regulating the orchestration of the overall process of acute local inflammation rather than by interacting with a specific cell type or biochemical mechanism. Several studies concluded that Traumeel Injection Solution may speed up the healing process instead of blocking edema development from the start. Additionally, Traumeel Injection Solution may play a role in situations where regulatory lymphocytes actively help control inflammatory reactions by producing the messenger, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). Low potencies of plant extracts (including Bellis perennis and Belladonna) found in Traumeel Injection Solution have demonstrated stimulatory effects on lymphocyte synthesis of the inhibitory cytokine TGF-β in whole blood cultures. Through TGF-β synthesis, other pro-inflammatory T-lymphocytes (via, for example, TNFα and IL-1) are prevented from supporting the inflammatory process. This action has been confirmed by results in vivo.1,2,3,4,5
References:1. Porozov S, Cahalon L, Weiser M, Branski D, Lider O, Oberbaum M. Inhibition of IL -1beta and TNF -alpha secretion from resting and activated human immunocytes by the homeopathic medication Traumeel S. Clin Dev Immunol. 2004;11(2):143-149.
2. Conforti A, Bertani S, Chirumbolo S, Lussignoli S, Bellavite P, Metelmann H. Experimental studies on the anti-inflammatory activity of a homeopathic preparation. Biomed Ther. 1997;15(1):28-31.
3. Cesnulevicius, K. The Bioregulatory Approach to Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders: Using the Multi-component Ultra low-dose Medication Traumeel to Target the Multiple Pathophysiological Processes of the Disease. Alternative Therapies Mar/Apr 2011. Vol 17. No.2 Suppl. S8-S17.
4. Mueller-Loebnitz, C., Goethel, D. Review of the Clinical Efficacy of the Multi-component Combination Medication Traumeel and its Components. Alternative Therapies Mar/Apr 2011. Vol 17. No.2 Suppl. S18-S30.
5. Lussignoli S, Bertani S, Metelmann H, Bellavite P, Conforti A. Effect of Traumeel® S, a homeopathic formulation, on blood-induced inflammation in rats. Complement Ther Med. 1999;7(4):225-230.
Proposed MOA of Zeel Injection Solution
In vitro and animal studies point to a multi-targeted mechanism of action mediated by various ingredients of Zeel injection solution that involves:
- Regulation of chronic inflammation1-3
- Prevention of vascularization of the cartilage and endochondrium4,5
- Remodeling and protection of cartilage6-8
- Alteration of cartilage mechanics9
Figure: The exact mechanism of action of Zeel Injection Solution is not fully understood. Invitro data indicate that the ingredients in Zeel may reduce pain, stiffness and inflammation in arthritic joints via immuno-modulation. It has been shown that Zeel inhibits activity of the leukocyte elastase. This enzyme is released during inflammatory reactions and attacks the articular cartilage.
References:1 Jäggi R, Würgler U, Grandjean F, Weiser M. Dual inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase/cyclooxygenase by a reconstituted homeopathic remedy; possible explanation for clinical efficacy and favourable gastrointestinal tolerability. Inflamm Res. 2004 Apr;53(4):150-7.
2 Birnesser H. Stolt P, The homeopathic preparation Zeel injection solution comp. N: A review of the molecular and clinical data. Explore (NY) 2007;3(1):16-22.
3 Tunon H, Olavsdotter C, Bohlin L. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of some Swedish medicinal plants. Inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and PAF-induced exocytosis. J Ethnopharmacol. 1995;48:61-76.
4 Basini G, Santini SE, Bussolati S, Grasselli F. Sanguinarine inhibits VEGF-induced Akt phosphorylation. Ann NY Acad Sci.2007 Jan;1095:371-6.
5 Basini G, Bussolati S, Santini SE, Grasselli F. Sanguinarine inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in a fibrin gel matrix. Biofactors. 2007;29(1):11-8.
6 Schmolz M. Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-α): eine neue Regelstrecke für antiphlogistische Therapien? Biol Med. 2000;29(1):31-34.
7 Schmolz M, Heine H. Homöopathische Substanzen aus der antihomotoxischen Medizin modulieren die Synthese von TGF-α1 in menschlichen Vollblutkulturen. Biol Med. 2001;30(2):61-65.
8 StanČíková M, Bély M, Švík K, Metelmann HW, Schmolz MW, Ištok R, Fano R. Effects of Zeel injection solution comp. on experimental osteoarthritis in rabbit knee. Rheumatologia 1999;13(3): 101-108.
9 Weh L, Fröschle G. Incubation in preparations as a means of influencing cartilage mechanics: a mechanical study. Biological Therapy. 1990;8(4):91-93.
10 Orlandini A, Rossi M, Setti M. The Effectiveness of Zeel® and New Research Methods in Rheumatology. Biological Medicine. Vol 26(4) 1997, 164-165.